The UQAM collection as a whole represents a rich seam in the late nineteenth and twentieth century social and cultural history of Australian Aboriginal and Pacific peoples. Many artefacts demonstrate the entanglement of missionaries, colonial officials and the indigenous inhabitants of a region. While collectors often sought to acquire objects that they thought represented the last genuine aspects of a cultural group, local people themselves creatively adapted their material culture using imported goods. The resulting complexity is a captivating aspect of many objects in the UQ Anthropology Museum and offers many opportunities for different kinds of research.